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What is pneumonia?

Pneumonia is an inflammation of the lung tissue. It is usually due to infection. Pneumonia tends to be more serious than bronchitis. Bronchitis is an inflammation or infection of the large airways – the bronchi (see diagram). Sometimes bronchitis and pneumonia occur together which is called bronchopneumonia.


Common symptoms of pneumonia include:

 Difficulty breathing (breaths are rapid and shallow)

 A cough that brings up phlegm (thick mucus)

 Rapid heartbeat (tachycardia)

 High temperature (fever) of 38C (100.4F) or above

 Chest pain

Less common symptoms of pneumonia include:

 Coughing up blood


 Loss of appetite




 Joint and muscle pain

 A blue tinge to the skin (cyanosis)
Sometimes, elderly people with pneumonia may become confused and disorientated.

Chest Infection

What Is Chest Infection ?

Chest infections are common, especially after a cold or flu during autumn and winter.
Although most are mild and get better on their own, some can be serious or even life-threatening.


The main symptoms of a chest infection can include:

 A persistent cough

 Coughing up yellow or green phlegm (thick mucus), or coughing up blood

 Breathlessness or rapid and shallow breathing


 A high temperature (fever)

 A rapid heartbeat

 Chest pain or tightness

 Feeling confused and disorientated


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